Two Americans and a British scientist have won the 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, the Nobel Committee announces on Monday, October 7.

The three researchers receive the award jointly for discovering how cells sense and react to oxygen levels.

Secretary of the Nobel Committee Thomas Perlmann makes the announcement. "The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, it has today decided to award the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, jointly to William Kaelin, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg Semenza, for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.”

He introduces the three laureates.

The work of the scientists has paved the way for new strategies to combat anemia, cancer, and other diseases.

An ecstatic Massachusetts researcher, Kaelin, Jr., describes how he felt when he receives the phone call.

[Dr. William G. Kaelin Jr., Nobel Medicine Prize Winner]: "I don't usually get phone calls at 5:00 in the morning, so, naturally, my heart started racing and I could see the call was from Stockholm and so I think at that point I almost had an out-of-body type of experience.

The three scientists will share equally the $918,000 cash award. This is the 110th prize in the category that has been awarded since 1901.

The Nobel Committee says the three researchers have identified the way the body’s genes respond to oxygen levels, which hold the answer to the production of red blood cells, creation of new blood vessels and refinement of the immune system.