For many years, international human rights organizations have accused the Chinese regime of abusing red notices for political objectives against Chinese living abroad, especially dissidents.

Many people on the Chinese regime’s red notice list are innocent or have no connection to politics. But Beijing frequently pursues them on charges of corruption and bribery.

For example, Zhang Haiyan, a former sales manager for an asset management company in Shanghai, has been fighting against being extradited to China. Instead, Portuguese authorities in the small northern city of Viseu detained her for the first time in April 2019 on an Interpol arrest warrant.

Because she disagreed with the Chinese regime’s request to give up the 39.6 million yuan (almost 6 million dollars) investment that she was seeking compensation for, she was accused of “fraud” by the Chinese regime through Interpol.

The Portuguese District Court surprisingly granted the extradition of Haiyan Zhang to China. She decided to appeal, but the Regional Court of Appeal upheld the decision. However, she continued to demand, and when the Supreme Court heard the case, it made the same decision to extradite her to China.

Haiyan Zhang is the fourth known extradition case in Portugal from China and the only one to be taken to the Supreme Court.

On the other hand, the Supreme Courts of Sweden and the Czech Republic have denied extradition to China because China’s conviction rate was as high as 99.97% by 2021. They have also declared that China’s diplomatic assurances are not credible. Extradition to China would violate two of the critical parts of the European Convention on Human Rights, namely freedom from torture and the right to a fair trial.

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